Accusative for Beginners in Slovenian

Accusative for Beginners in Slovenian

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Welcome to our Slovenian grammar course for beginners! Today we're going to talk about the Accusative Case - "Tožilnik" in Slovenian grammar.
Before reading the article, we strongly recommend that you read the lesson about Nominative, Genitive and Dative.


The accusative case answers the questions koga? (whom? ), kaj? (what? ), and kam? (where to). It is used without prepositions when we answer these questions. Nouns in the accusative case cannot be subjects in sentences.
For example:
Povabil bom (koga?) Roberta (I will invite Robert);
Marjan igra (kaj?) nogomet (Marjan plays soccer).

Additionally, it is very often used with the following prepositions:

- za, answering the question za kaj (for what) or za koga (for whom).
For example:
Žoga (za kaj?) za tenis (a ball for tennis);
Knjiga (za koga?) za brata (a book for the brother).

- "v", answering the question kam (where to).
V kino (to the cinema);
V lokal (to the bar);
V gore (to the mountains);
V naravo (to nature).

- "na", also answering the question kam (where to).
Na kosilo (for lunch);
Na letališče (to the airport);
Na sprehod (for a walk);
Na aerobiko (to aerobics).


Now let's go through the endings. Singular form:
Velikega psa - The big dog (masculine);
Dober film - The good movie (masculine);
Mojo prijateljico - My friend (feminine);
Zanimivo stvar - The interesting thing (feminine);
Nedeljsko kosilo - The Sunday lunch (neuter);
Športno igrišče - The sports field (neuter).

One special feature is that in the singular form of the neuter gender, the nominative and accusative cases are the same in Slovenian. The forms for the masculine gender are the same only for inanimate objects; for animate objects, the accusative case forms coincide with the genitive case forms. In the feminine gender nouns have the "-o".


Now, let's see what happens with the dual number:
Velika psa - Two big dogs (masculine);
Dobra filma - Two good movies (masculine);
Moji prijateljici - Two of my friends (feminine);
Zanimivi stvari - Two interesting things (feminine);
Nedeljski kosili - Two Sunday lunches (neuter);
Športni igrišči - Two sports fields (neuter).

Actually, nothing happens! In Slovenian, the accusative case forms in the dual number are 100% identical to the nominative case forms in the dual number. That's why tožilnik and imenovalnik are often compared.


And finally, the plural form:
Velike pse - Big dogs (masculine);
Dobre filme - Good movies (masculine);
Moje prijateljice - My friends (feminine);
Zanimive stvari - Interesting things (feminine);
Nedeljska kosila - Sunday lunches (neuter);
Športna igrišča - Sports fields (neuter).

In the plural form, only nouns and adjectives of the masculine gender have special endings - instead of the "-i" in the nominative case, the accusative case has the ending "-e". The feminine and neuter forms remain unchanged, as in the nominative case.


We hope that everything is clear after reading this article. We are waiting for you in the next lesson about the Instrumental case (Orodnik). Good luck!